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About beadthechange

This is a blog for ARTS2090 (Publics and Publishing in Transition).

ARTS2090 Task Three: Essay-in-lieu-of-examination

1. ‘It makes increasingly less sense even to talk about a publishing industry, because the core problem publishing solves—the incredible difficulty, complexity, and expense of making something available to the public—has stopped being a problem.’ (Clay Shirky, ‘Newspapers and Thinking the Unthinkable’, Are digital and networked media dismantling the “publishing industry”? Is it being replaced? If so, what is replacing it? If not, what is the publishing industry becoming, and how is it doing so? Are there new difficulties and complexities or expenses involved?

Shirky mentions that “the core problem publishing solves – the incredible difficulty, complexity, and expense of making something available to the public – has stopped being a problem” (2009). This is true to a large extent. Digital and networked media are indeed dismantling the existing publishing industry, and have done so in numerous ways. The rise of online news sites and digital newspapers that can be subscribed and accessed through devices (iPad etc.) are only some of the many examples of how we are integrating digital and networked media into our lives. Even so, I do not think that these forms of media are replacing the publishing industry. The word ‘replace’ is an inappropriate term to use in our current circumstances today. Newspapers, magazines and other similar forms of publishing are currently still being distributed and purchased through many different intermediaries. Rather than replacing them, I think that digital and networked media are actually supplementing these traditional forms of publishing with their versatility instead. The print industry seems to be adapting well to these emerging forms of media online. Media convergence, “a process whereby new technologies are accommodated by existing media and communication industries and cultures”, can be used to describe this (Dwyer 2010, p.2). However, this accommodation does not occur without the involvement of new difficulties, complexities or expenses. These arguments will be further elaborated in the rest of my essay.

Newspapers have been around for a very long time. They are used by individuals for “entertainment and information, as well as for keeping up to date with the world of public events” (Balnaves, Donald & Donald 2001, p.22). The emergence of online news sites, however, has added a new way in which such information can be accessed. and ABCNews are some examples of popular news sites that are widely accessed by online users. Such sites provide “instant delivery of up-to-the minute news”, an advantage that the print industry is not able to compete with (Balnaves, Donald & Donald 2001, p.24). Besides the use of pictures and text, these sites also provide both audio and video to supplement them., for example, is known to feature videos and audios that can be streamed live. Others such as CBS News and ABCNews enable readers to subscribe to their newsletters or news alerts. In Australia, The Daily Telegraph and The Sydney Morning Herald are two examples of newspapers that have brought their news online, and have adapted well in providing instant updates to online users.

However, newspapers are not the only form of publishing that is doing this. Magazines are also increasingly making use of digital media to cater for online users, and therefore maintain readership. Marie Claire, Vanity Fair and National Geographic are some examples that have done this.

In recent times, news and magazine organizations have taken even further steps ahead when they introduced applications on mobile devices such as the iPad, and e-readers such as Amazon’s Kindle Fire. The Daily Telegraph, for example, has come up with three strategies to ensure convenience for their readers. Firstly, it has developed an optimised version of their news site ideal for smart phones. Secondly, it has created an application called The Daily Telegraph eNewspaper, which is basically a digital version of the actual newspaper in print. This is catered towards readers who still wish to feel as if they were flipping through a hard copy of the newspaper while using an e-reader or iPad. Personally, I find this quite ironic. This hints that there are many who still prefer getting their news in the form of print. Lastly, The Daily Telegraph also has an application that is designed specially for the iPad, which consists of exclusive news and features.

Image source

One main issue or complexity that is involved with news in the form of digital media is the implementation of paywalls. As paywalls require readers to pay certain amounts of money on a regular basis in order to gain full access to news online, news organisations would lose readers who refuse to spend such money. For example, Rupert Murdoch’s Herald Sun has recently implemented a paywall for access to “premium content” which includes news regarding sports, crime and others (Rourke 2012).

Books are also following this digital trend, as eBooks are now available at sites such as Such a site enables the download of digital books with the use of smartphones, e-readers and even computers. These act as examples of media convergence, “a situation in which multiple media systems coexist and where media content flows fluidly across them” (Jenkins 2006, cited in Dwyer 2010, p.24).

Despite the fact that news organisations are converging to deliver news and information in various forms, I do not think that they are attempting to replace the print industry. By bringing news online, they should instead experience an increase of interest and readership. Members of Generation Y are generally known to interact well with most things involving media and digital technologies. As the Internet serves as a global network, these tech-savvy individuals would then be able to access information that they were unable to get a hold of physically before.

Until today, newspapers and magazines are being distributed and sold at newsstands, convenient stores and even supermarkets. A man might buy a copy of The Sydney Morning Herald from a newsstand before he boards a train to work so as to ensure that he is kept occupied during the entire ride. A lady who is queuing up to pay for her groceries at Woolworths might pick up a copy of a tabloid magazine and browse through it while she waits for the person in front of her to leave. She might even decide to purchase it in the end. These examples illustrate the extent to which we incorporate traditional media into our everyday lives.

Image source

A newsstand in Barcelona

Newspapers and magazines do not simply act as sources for news and information (Balnaves, Donald & Donald 2001, p.24). According to Balnaves, Donald and Donald, “Newspapers deliver a sense of collective, shared identity as well as facts and figures, and it is this aspect that is likely to be more durable…the silent ritual of reading the newspaper is a way of anchoring ourselves in the world of passing events – a way of living in the present – and of establishing a secular communion with our fellow citizens” (2001, p.24). Many may not realise this, but I certainly think that newspapers and magazines have shaped, and are continuing to shape the ways that we live. As mentioned by Finnemann, “while old media are refunctionalized/repurposed, they are also influential actors in the development of Internet forms” (Finnemann 2006, cited in Dwyer 2010, p.32).

News and information have become so essential in our lives to the extent that they now take up digital forms in order to cater towards our changing demands. Therefore, rather than being replaced, I think that the publishing industry is extending its resources to digital media. This point is further supported by Dwyer, “what we have is a process of co-evolution, including the development of a variety of new inter-relationships” (Finnemann 2006, cited in Dwyer 2010, p.32).

The publishing industry is simply like an assemblage which has now become a part of an even larger form of an assemblage, the Internet. In each of these assemblages, their elements have changed in order for integration or convergence to occur. Their relations have also changed, such that there is now increasing linkage or relevance between the both of them. For example, since content such as videos and audio cannot be published in print, they are available on the news sites as supplements.

However, this extension of news and information does not stop here. Networked media plays an increasingly significant role in the distribution of news and information. News organisations have been taking advantages of social networking sites such as Twitter and Facebook not only to inform and update, but to also boost readership. For most news sites, readers are given the options to ‘like’, ‘share’ or ‘recommend’ their articles.

On Facebook, there is an existing feature whereby articles that friends have read are made visible on a user’s News Feed. Another similar feature, which displays “trending articles”, is also one of Facebook’s latest additions. This, however, have resulted in “critics complaining about clutter in their News Feeds” (Greene 2012). According to Greene, “Even in testing, in what appears to be a limited number of users, the Trending Articles feature is already drawing the ire of some Facebook users” (Greene 2012).  These features might be different attempts by news organisations at encouraging more readers to visit their sites. These efforts, however, are not turning out to be very successful.

News organisations continue to display their immense support for networked media by creating their very own accounts on sites such as Twitter and Facebook. News and information are being distributed through these platforms. For example, a link to an article, accompanied by a short headline, is posted as a ‘tweet’ to inform users of a news update. This provides convenience for online users who are only a click away from getting their news and information.

Image source

With the increasing use and popularity among social media sites such as Twitter, users also have growing tendencies to produce and contribute content.  Twitter, for example, has currently “140 million monthly active users producing 400 million tweets daily” (Shih 2012). As mentioned before, news sites would usually encourage readers to share or recommend their articles through the use of these social platforms. In addition, online news sites also provide platforms for public discussion through comments that users can post. This is another disadvantage for the print industry, as it does not possess such an instantaneous function.

There has also been considerable discussion on how the use of Twitter enables users to spread news and information at a much faster rate when compared to official news sources. For example, the news of Whitney Houston’s death earlier this year was revealed first by an unofficial source, followed by the press (Murphy 2012).

Although this does prove that Twitter is efficient as a real-time information network, how credible are the sources for information that are distributed on its site? According to an online article from CNN, it mentions that “social networking has made us all news sources…missteps and misinformation get issued” (Leopold 2012). The trend of posting fake reports of the deaths of celebrities is on Twitter is one example.

Broadcast media (television and radio etc.) is also currently experiencing impacts similar to those of the print industry. There is an increasing availability of various content on sites such as YouTube and MySpace. For example, music can be streamed on MySpace. Many bands or music artistes use this feature to promote their music. Another example is Vevo, an online platform which provides music videos and entertainment.

YouTube has become one of the world’s most popular video-sharing sites where all types of content ranging from Vlogs, music videos and other original content are uploaded. In the past, music videos were mostly only available on television channels such as the popular Music TeleVision (MTV). However, the growth of digital and networked media has brought such content online, where sharing is made significantly easier.

iTunes enable users to purchase music in digital formats. This is a big contrast to the past, when music was sold mainly through physical copies of CDs and other similar forms. Live streaming of radio stations have also been made available online. This allows listeners to tune in from anywhere, and without the need of an actual radio device. Compared to music stores, which archives would probably consist of stacks and rows of things such as CDs, iTunes is a form of archive that is probably always easier to store and organize since everything on it are in digital formats.

Although these examples of digital media are convenient such that they can be accessed by anyone, anywhere, and at any time, piracy is a big issue. Although it is illegal, sites such as LimeWire provided users with a program which allowed them to download and share copyrighted material.

Whether distributed through online, print or broadcast, I think that it really depends on every individual to decide on the type of content that they would like to aggregate. For example, some may prefer to access news online, while others may decide to stick with the familiarity of traditional newspapers.

In conclusion, I have stated in my essay that although new media is dismantling the publishing industry, it has no intention of replacing it. Instead, the publishing industry is being supplemented, while it also extends its resources online through the process of media convergence. The publishing industry has also largely influenced the digital and networked media that exists today.


Balnaves, M, Donald, J, Donald, SH 2001, The Penguin Atlas of Media and Information, Penguin Putnam, New York.

Dwyer, T 2010, Media Convergence, Bell and Bain Ltd, Glasgow.

Greene, J 2012, ‘Facebook’s Trending Articles Finds Foes Among the Clutter’, 1 May, accessed 5 May, <>.

Leopold, T 2012, ‘In Today’s Warp-Speed World, Online Missteps Spread Faster than Ever’, 6 March, accessed 2 May, <>.

Murphy, S 2012, ‘Twitter Breaks News of Whitney Houston Death 27 Minutes Before Press’, 13 February, accessed 6 May, <>.

Rourke, A 2012, ‘Rupert Murdoch’s Herald Sun Launches Paywall’, The Guardian, 13 April, accessed 6 June, <;.

Shih, Gerry, 2012, ‘Twitter’s Mobile Ad Take Strong’, 7 June, accessed 7 June, <>.

Shirky, C 2009, ‘Newspapers and Thinking the Unthinkable’, weblog, 13 March, accessed 6 May, <>.

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Week 12 – Aggregation

This week, each of us are required to do some research on the different types of publishing and select one as our favorite. We will then have to present it to the rest of the class as a “show and tell” in our tutorial for the week. But before i go into detail about the publishing that i chose, i would like to reflect on Week 11’s lecture on “Distribution, Aggregation and the Social”.

I really liked the examples that Andrew provided to explain the concepts of distribution and aggregation. They were useful in helping me understand how the two different terms fit into publics and publishing. Andrew used the concept of breathing to explain them in the lecture. Breathing out and in is comparable to distribution and aggregation respectively. This concept was so simple that it enabled me to understand the terms almost immediately.

The publishing that i chose to present in class this week will most certainly include the concepts of distribution and aggregation as well. I selected a project done by Kelli Anderson, an artist and designer from the United States. This project is called the “Paper Record Player”, a “booklet-style” wedding invitation that also allows recipients to play a tune based on a flexidisc record just by following a few simple steps. Here is a video demonstration of her project:

An extract from Kelli’s blog on how the “Paper Record Player” works:

“In the booklet-style invitation, a bit of paper-folding amplifies the sound of a sewing needle moving along the grooves of a flexidisc record. The hand-spun record yields a garbled, but scrutable listening of an original song by the couple. It requires a bit of tinkering and folding —effectively championing the inner science-nerd kid in the recipient. The whole thing serves as an interactive packaging for the song—which can be experienced on the paper record player, unscrewed + set on a regular turntable, or enjoyed online (for the non-nerds and/or audiophiles out there.)…The resulting booklet is comprised of a cover, two inner pages, a letterpressed band (with instructions and a tear-off RSVP postcard), and a flexdisc on a screwpost. The recipient bends the second page of the booklet back to create a tented ‘arm’. With the needle placed, they then carefully spin the flexidisc at 45 RPM (ish) to hear the song. The sewing needle travels the length of the song and produces the sound. Its vibrations are amplified by the thin, snappy paper to which it is adhered.”

As mentioned by Kelli, the couple who got married had a common love for music. They have even collaborated to produce songs together. As the tune that is featured in the wedding invitation is also written by them, i guess this can be an example of “aggregating experience”. The tune that is heard from the booklet is the result of the phases and processes that the couple had to experience to produce the original song.

Once copies of these wedding invitations are made, they are distributed to everyone who are invited so as to inform them about the occasion. The information that is contained in the invitation will then be aggregated by the people who receive it. For example, some may focus more on the record player by paying attention to its rhythm and lyrics, while others may be more interested in the design and overall structure of the invitation booklets.

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Week 11 Blog – Platforms

This week’s readings has helped me to learn more about the links between distribution and platforms of which the information is being conveyed. The platforms commonly used today include e-readers, DVDs, books, file formats, newspapers and more. However, with today’s internet technologies, i think that sites such as Twitter, YouTube and Facebook are also online platforms that are playing increasingly essential roles in distributing information to everyone these days. Due to their instantaneous, convenient and mobile functions, they are changing the way information is being distributed today. For example, newspapers are no longer the only form of medium that brings news to societies. Corporations are making use of several platforms such as Twitter, YouTube and online news sites to distribute their content. This clever use of multi-platforms provides convenience to their readers who are equipped with the latest technologies.

I think that some of Dana Boyd’s assertions about Twitter in Hubert Guillaud’s “What Is Implied by Living in a World of Flow” are quite accurate in addressing what is really happening today. Stimulation, I feel, is indeed one of the reasons why Twitter is an increasingly popular platform for distribution and expression. According to Guillaud, “People consume the content that stimulates their mind and their senses. Consequently, it is not always ‘the best’ or the most informative content that holds their attention, but that which triggers a reaction.” Gossip, interesting facts and personal bits of information are things that are usually shared by users. This creates a sense of connection or intimacy between people. Fans, for example, enjoy having to know about their idols’ current locations and activities through these updates. This is impossible for traditional platforms such as newspapers and books. It is no surprise, therefore, for humans to be drawn to such a technology.

Although i feel positively about these newer forms of distribution (e-readers, iPads, Twitter etc.), there is always an issue of credibility within them.

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Week 10 Blog: Presentation

Our group presentations for the visualization project happen this week. This project requires us to make something invisible visible through the use of acquired data from a specific topic. At first, my two other group mates and i struggled to come up with a topic that we all thought was interesting and uncommon. We asked ourselves: what data can we collect that will enable us to create a visualization that is unique and different to other existing types based on a similar topic? Will we have easy access to this data or will we have to conduct our own forms of research (surveys etc.)? We came up with many different topics ranging from global warming to advertisements, but decided to settle with Hollywood movies and its changing themes over the years. We then thought about the ways in which we could use the collected data to create a visualization that would bring to light a certain form of pattern or understanding based on our topic.

As mentioned in a previous lecture, visualisation is about discovering new patterns and insights, and “using images we draw from data to structure new relationships and new forms of knowledge”.

The visualization that we came up with is a vertical curve consisting of several layers. Each layer represents a time period and includes two different images placed side by side. The images on the left display examples of films that were most popular during that era, while those on the right show social, economic or political events that occurred then.

From our visualization, we are able to see that these films tend to respond to the events that occur in society and the ways in which people are affected by them. The films depict real-life occurrences, either directly or indirectly, through story ideas that were inspired by these events. Our visualization summarizes many years of records and information (archive) into something that is straightforward and easy to comprehend. In addition, it saves researchers a lot of time since all of the information is compressed into a single source which consists mostly of pictures.

Our visualization:

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Week 9 – Do Visual Media Work Differently to Other Media Forms?

Yes, visual media do work differently to other forms of media to a certain extent. Things have to be perceptible by the sense of sight in order for them to be considered as visual. Media, on the other hand, is the means of communication through televisions and newspapers to name a few. Apart from the obvious difference that visual and non-visual media require the use of different senses such as seeing and hearing, I think that their audiences would also have dissimilar perceptions and are most likely to engage themselves with these respective forms of media on different levels.

Visual images in commercials displayed on television screens play a dynamic role in influencing perceptions of their targeted audiences based on how persuasive or appealing their content is. These commercials have the advantage of combining both visual and sound into promoting their products and are usually successful in altering perceptions of viewers into thinking that the advertisers are always right. As mentioned previously in the lecture, visual technologies are thought to “dominate by separating us from our embodied experience, and giving us a distant ‘world view’ or ‘world picture’”. Engagement with visual media is very high because of the need for viewers to watch and listen to be able to fully understand the key messages that advertisers are trying to put across. With full concentration on the television screen, the viewer is vulnerable to taking in information and visuals that may alter his perception to this “distant ‘world view’ or ‘world picture’”. This HTC advertisement from 2011 is an example of a combination of visual and sound media to capture the attention of its target audiences.

A radio, on the other hand, may not be able to make an impact strong enough to change audiences’ perceptions as successfully as compared to a television. Rather than having to sit or stay in a position to watch a television, radio-listeners are able to multi-task. For example, an individual may be driving while tuning in to a radio station in his vehicle. This results in less concentration on the radio and the inability for listeners to absorb everything that they hear from the medium. Therefore, level of engagement is usually not as high as compared to visual media.

In addition, since the radio is a form of media that is non-visual, the supplied content is thought evoking and also gives listeners the freedom to create their own perceptions from what they hear.

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Week 8 – Blog Post

Visualisation is an important tool in discovering new patterns, relationships and knowledge. From the use of archives, information or data is put together to form visuals such as maps, graphs and many more. The images below displays three different types of information graphics based on collected data and research.

Image 1 

This information graphic is described as an “annotated scatterplot with equality line”. It shows the earnings between males and females based on a range of different occupations and then compares these with the line of equality. Personally, i think that this is a very interesting form of visual as equality is a vast concept that i never would have thought can be condensed or analysed into a graph such as this. Based on this information graphic, one can see the wage gaps between men and women in different sectors of working industry. From such findings, hypotheses can be created for further understanding on why these trends are taking place. Personally, i think that this is a very useful visual that can allow governments to come up with strategies and tactics in bringing the wage gaps of both genders closer together.


Image 2 

This is a “World Bank data visualizer”. It is a “a complex visualisation tool to make available 49 indicators for 209 countries and 18 aggregates from 1960-2007”. Indicators included in this visualizer are  social, economic, financial, information & technology and environmental. According to its source, “The visualisation is completely customizable bubble chart in the spirit of ‘gapminder’ and the user selects the x and y axis dimensions as well as the variable that determine the size of the bubbles and the time point to be displayed.”

As a large organization, there is no doubt that World Bank has a large archive consisting of large amounts of data and information from countries based on their continuous research. This visual is useful to the organization as it makes comparisons of different countries based on aspects such as the social, economic and financial much easier. All data is condensed into this “customizable bubble chart” which provides fast and easy access to important information.


Image 3

“This is an online application that presents backdated meteorological data from Augsburg, Germany. The tool combines the advantages of several static visualisations, such as tables, line graphs and bar charts into a streamlined display.” – DataViz

This “3D Infographic” is another useful piece of visual which explains meteorological data in a very creative and effective way. I like how it uses 3D in displaying its data. Just by the use of lines, the info graphic is able to include data from many different aspects such as temperature, luminosity and wind direction to name a few. Once again, it saves analysts a lot of time and effort in condensing data collected from research.


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Week 5 – Blog Post

As the phrase ‘archive fever’ was new to me, I was quite confused as to how archives are relatable to the word ‘fever’.  I’m aware that archive is the storage of information and records that can be accessed again later. A few examples are libraries, computer hard drives, social networks such as Twitter and Facebook, electronic mail, as well as address books to name a few. This concept was easy enough for me to understand because I am a consumer or participants of some of these archives. I check my Facebook and Twitter pages regularly to keep myself included in what Ogle calls “the real-time web”. I make sure to check my e-mail daily for any urgent or important messages.

Derrida states that the word ‘fever’, in this case, does not necessarily pertain to the meaning of falling ill. In her explanation, she says: “It is to burn with a passion. It is never to rest, interminably, from searching for the archive right where it slips away. It is to run after the archive, even if there’s too much of it… it is to have a compulsive, repetitive, and nostalgic desire for the archive, an irrepressible desire to return to the origin, a homesickness, a nostalgia for the return to the most archaic place of absolute commencement.”

What came to my mind after I read this explanation are the examples of how it is popular trend to post videos on the video-sharing platform, YouTube. Every time a user uploads a video, he is adding to his archive on YouTube. Their subscribers, on the other hand, will receive notifications on these uploaded videos and would possibly then visit the site to watch them. Individuals such as Natalie Tran and Ray William Johnson have millions of people subscribed to their channels on YouTube. As planning, filming and editing these videos tend to take a while, fans of these famous channels would always wait for new videos to be uploaded each time. I think this relates well to archive fever as subscribers display a “compulsive, repetitive, and nostalgic desire for the archive”. Here is one of Natalie Tran’s recent videos in which thanks her subscribers and fans for waiting for her next upload on YouTube.

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Week 4; Mind-map for ‘assemblage’

Assemblage mind-map

As defined in the course outline, assemblage refers to “an assembling of elements of relations” and “a relational network of elements or actants in a flat oncology”. Assemblage constitutes both human and non-human actants. According to DeLanda, all elements (including actants) in an assemblage should be treated with equality.

An example of an assemblage is print publishing for newspapers. Human actants include individuals such as journalists, reporters, photographers, editors, publishers, deliverymen, consumers and more. Journalists, reporters and editors take charge in the writing and editing of the news each day while photographers take photos, which accompany these articles. Publishers make sure that the newspapers are published successfully. The deliverymen then deliver newspapers to news agencies or readers who have subscribed to them.

Non-human actants, on the other hand, include computers, cameras, publishing machines, vehicles for delivery, materials and more. These actants are also vital in the publication of newspapers.

All these elements make up a network or assemblage.

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Week 3 Blog Post

This week’s readings revolved around the issue of news sites and the implementation of paywalls. Digital publishing, I feel, is one those developments that have made significant differences in many of our lives.  Other modes of publishing that have also caused such impacts include social networking sites like Twitter, Facebook, as well as the popular video-streaming site YouTube.

When I checked my e-mail just recently, Apple had sent me an advertisement regarding their iBookstore where they featured new books, including those that are currently in the spotlight with discounted prices. This has made me further realize how digital publishing is increasingly being used as a marketing tool by many organizations such as Apple today. Besides the iPad, eReader and the concept of print on demand (POD), news organizations have long joined the trend by making their news accessible online. This brings up the issue on paywalls.

Basically, paywalls restrict online content of news sites to only those who pay for digital subscriptions. The New York Times is one example of a news organization that has implemented this concept. In my opinion, paywalls are a good way of giving credit to news organizations for the articles and information that they provide to the public. Additionally, we should also support them for being government watchdogs. What would become of this society if journalism does not exist?

With readers subscribing to online news, it makes sense for them make full use of news sites to make their money worth. Hence, this may result in higher readership for news organizations. Personally, it seems like newspapers are in for a lot of advantages from the use of paywalls.  The New York Times, especially, may be able to feel these positive differences since they are one of the world’s most prominent newspapers. Apart from convenience, long-time readers are probably willing to pay for digital subscriptions because they are aware that they will be provided with quality journalism.

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ARTS2090 Week 2 Blog Post

Publishing, relating not only to newspapers and books, have taken many new forms over the years. Technology plays a very big part of this evolution, as increasingly common technologies such as the eReader and Apple iPad are made available in the market today. Open publishing, mainly used by websites on the Internet is another example. With a computer and Internet access, anyone is able to access these public sites (eg. Wikipedia).

There are, of course, benefits that can be gained from electronic publishing. These include the reformatting of digital books to suit the needs of those who have difficulty in reading (eg. Dyslexia), the practice of green publishing, as well as the ability to time-shift reading to complement busy schedules. However, despite the conveniences that digital publishing has made available to its readers, I feel that the collaboration between technology and publishing changes the whole reading experience. Books, in their physical form, enable readers to be fully immersed and engaged with the text without the need to press a button or hit a key. E-readers and iPads, although designed for convenience, still need to be charged every once in a while for optimum performance. This may act as a type of distraction for some readers and, as a result, disrupt and limit reading.

Publishers, on the other hand, need to accept and adapt to the fact that publishing is evolving into different forms other than print. The Sydney Morning Herald is one example of a news organization that has taken its daily news and reports online. It runs both print and online news, displaying its ability to adapt to changing times and needs.

Despite having a long history of its own, should print publishing be phased out by e-reading? Personally, I think that the emergence of products such as e-readers and iPads have definitely ensured convenience for those who have grown used to e-reading. However, I still hope that the print publishing industry continues to provide the rest of us with physical copies of books and newspapers.

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